This Handbook was developed as a response to the growing interest in rice fortiﬁcation using extrusion technology. Manufacturers of fortiﬁed kernels and programme personnel expressed a need to have a readily available handbook that could answer key questions related to the eﬀects of extrusion technology on this product’s fundamental quality attributes. This Handbook would not have been possible without Thomas Brümmer (Consultant), the main author; Carla Mejia (World Food Programme (WFP), Regional Bureau-Bangkok), the technical lead; and Dora Panagides (WFP, Nutrition Division) the overall project coordinator.
Special thanks to the core group of technical experts for their inputs into various drafts. These include Judith Smit, Georg Steiger and Nicolle Goetz from DSM; David Morgan from the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition; and from WFP, Laura Irizarry (Regional Bureau-Panama), Davor Janjatovic (Headquarters) and Clemence Maurin (Regional Bureau-Dakar). Thanks also to Sarah Zimmerman and Becky Tsang from the Food Fortiﬁcation Initiative, and Reynaldo Martorell at Emory University, for their review.
Design and typsetting were carried out by Dayana Dineva and Anh Bui, technical editing by Vanessa Jones, and ﬁnal editing and oversight by Corinne Ringholz (WFP, Nutrition Division).
More than two billion people are deﬁcient in essential vitamins and minerals. Such micronutrient deﬁciencies are usually the result of poor quality diets, and lead to a range of disabilities including impaired brain development and cognition, impaired immunity against disease, poor pregnancy outcome, poor growth, impaired work capacity, blindness, and even death. These poor health outcomes restrict the intellectual potential of the individual, reduce the earning power of the family, and decrease the gross domestic product of the country 1,2.
One way to improve food quality in the diets of vulnerable populations is by adding vitamins and minerals to commonly consumed foods, otherwise known as food fortiﬁcation. This has long-lasting positive eﬀects on people’s lives by reducing micronutrient deﬁciencies. Renowned scientists and Nobel laureate economists endorse food fortiﬁcation as a safe, sustainable, cost-eﬀective intervention for public health and economic development 3,4.
Rice is a staple food for over half the world’s population, many of whom live in poverty. While it is a good source of energy, many nutrients are lost in the milling process which make it a poor source of essential vitamins and minerals 5. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on rice fortiﬁcation, “Due to its wide local consumption, acceptability, reach and quantum consumption, rice far exceeds the requirements of a staple food vehicle that can be considered for fortiﬁcation purposes at a population-level intervention” 6. With rice fortiﬁcation technologies now well-established, and published studies providing evidence of the impact of rice fortiﬁcation, multiple stakeholders are well-positioned to make fortiﬁed rice available through social protection programmes, as well as in the market.
This handbook was developed in response to an increasing need for guidance on the production of fortiﬁed kernels (FKs) made from rice ﬂour, vitamins, minerals, and water using extrusion. It is meant for producers of FKs and for food science professionals supporting rice fortiﬁcation programmes, as well as other interested stakeholders including regulatory monitoring technical agencies and research organisations interested in providing technical assistance in extrusion for fortiﬁcation.
The overall objective of this handbook is to provide basic technical guidance on the production of FKs, using extrusion technology. It aims to address the key challenges faced in the production process and to support decision-making and troubleshooting.
It gives general details of the production process and technical requirements with the aim of decision making. It provides information on raw materials, the extrusion process, equipment, and general quality attributes of FK. This diﬀers from previous manuals as they have focused primarily on ﬁnal fortiﬁed rice. This manual is meant to guide the selection of an extrusion line for production of FKs. It is a “quick” reference and not a comprehensive manual on production. Given particularities associated with equipment manufacturers and brands, it is expected that food manufacturers will receive more speciﬁc technical support from the company from which the extrusion equipment was purchased.